Business email compromise (BEC)—also known as email account compromise (EAC)—is one of the most financially damaging online crimes. It exploits the fact that so many of us rely on email to conduct business—both personal and professional. In a BEC scam, criminals send an email message that appears to come from a known source making a legitimate request, like in these examples:
A vendor your company regularly deals with sends an invoice with an updated mailing address. A company CEO asks her assistant to purchase dozens of gift cards to send out as employee rewards. She asks for the serial numbers so she can email them out right away. A homebuyer receives a message from his title company with instructions on how to wire his down payment.
Versions of these scenarios happened to real victims. All the messages were fake. And in each case, thousands—or even hundreds of thousands—of dollars were sent to criminals instead.
What does BEC mean bachelor?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia “BEc” redirects here. For other uses, see Bec and BEC, The Bachelor of Economics ( BEc or BEcon ), or the Bachelor of Applied Economics, is a bachelor’s degree awarded by many universities and colleges for completion of an undergraduate program in economics, econometrics, or applied economics; these are often paired with business, finance, or mathematics.
What does BEC stand for in education?
A Basic Education Circular (BEC) provides the Department of Education’s guidance on the implementation of law, regulation and policy.
|Access to Secondary Students
|20 USC 790
|The Pennsylvania Department of Education interprets Public Law 107–110, No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Section 9528 (Armed Forces Recruiter Access To Students and Student Recruiting Information), 20 USC §7908, and Pennsylvania law Act 10, 1991, 51 P.S. §§20221-20225 in the following manner:
|Act 1 of 2022 – Assisting Students Experiencing Education Instability
|24 P.S. § 13-1331.1
|Act 1 of 2022 (Act 1) promotes timely high school graduation and facilitates equal access to academics and extracurricular activities and the removal of systemic barriers for students who experience education instability as defined by the legislation.
| Act 168 of 2014 – Procedures and Forms
|This circular describes the process for completing the employment history review process related to Act 168, explains the use of forms for employment screening, and details the process for accessing “pending criminal charge” information as required by Act 168.
|Admission to Kindergarten and Beginners
|Local school board has the right and responsibility for establishing the age at which a child can begin the kindergarten program
|Alteration and/or Curtailment of Programs
|Section 1124 of the School Code provides that: Any board of school directors may suspend the necessary number of professional employees, for any of the causes herein enumerated
|Alternative Education for Disruptive Youth
|24 P.S.1901-1906 C
|Provides guidance regarding placement of students in Alternative Education for Disruptive Youth (AEDY) Programs. It also provides guidance on AEDY program requirements to ensure that students in these programs are provided appropriate academic and behavioral support services
|20 USC §1401(1-2)
|Revised guidance regarding assistive technology to comply with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) as amended in 2004 and Chapters 14 and 711.
|Provides guidance to school administrators concerning the duties resulting from Act 24, signed into law on June 30, 2011, requiring background checks for employees of public and private schools, IUs, and AVTSs, including independent contractors and their employees
|To serve as a guide for charter schools, school districts, parents, and students. The Charter School law, known as Act 22 of 1997, is part of the Pennsylvania School Code, cited as 24 P.S. Article XVII-A
|Commissioned School Officers
|24 P.S.10-1078 and 9-963
|Identifies when a commission will be issued and what is necessary to be submitted to the Department for approval
|Compulsory School Attendance, Unlawful Absences, and School Attendance Improvement Conferences
|24 P.S. §§ 13-1326 – 1354
|Department of Education and the schools of the Commonwealth are obligated to comply with state and federal requirements for student attendance and truancy
|17 U.S.C. Section 107
|The Copyright Revision Act of 1976 (P.L.94-553) became effective on January 1, 1978, This legislation takes cognizance of technological advancements in communication and education and sets standards for “fair use” of printed, audiovisual, graphic and musical materials by teachers.
|22 Pa. Code § 21.51
|Provide information concerning Commonwealth approval of PlanCon reimbursable projects.
|Cyber Charter Schools (Currently being revised)
|Guidance for cyber charter schools, school districts, parents, and students.
|Cyber Charter School Use of Physical Facilities
|24 P.S. §§ 17-1741-A – 17-1751-A
|Guidance to cyber charter applicants and operators relating to the requirements for delivery of curriculum and instruction to students through the internet and other electronic means and the proper use of a cyber charter school’s physical facilities.
|Cyclical Monitoring Schedule for Gifted Education
|22 Pa. Code Chapter 16
|The purpose of this Circular is to outline the cyclical monitoring process for gifted education and to publish a monitoring schedule.
|Days Schools Not to be Kept Open
|24 P.S. Section 15-1502
|This BEC identifies for the board of school directors when developing their school calendar which days may be used as instructional days and specific days of the week and holidays which may not be used for instruction under any circumstances
|Department–Funded Slots for Approved Private Schools and Chartered Schools
|24 P.S. §§ 13-1302; 13-1372
|Provides guidance on how a school district can place a student in an approved private school pursuant to an Individualized Education Program (IEP) and receive partial funding for the placement from the Pennsylvania Department of Education, when such funding is available, pursuant to sections 1302 and 1372 of the Public School Code.
|Determination of Residence of Children Living in Pennsylvania Institutions
|24 PS 13-1308
|Circular describes the procedures for determining the place of residence of school-aged persons who live in institutions in Pennsylvania, but whose parents or legal guardians reside outside Pennsylvania
|Disciplinary Exclusions of Students Who Are Eligible for Special Education
|22 Pa. Code Section 14.143
|Federal regulations for the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This BEC provides formal written guidance regarding disciplinary exclusions (suspension).
|Drug and Alcohol Education, Counseling and Support Services
|Section 1547 of the PA School Code, enacted as Act 211 of 1990, requires school districts to implement a comprehensive tobacco, alcohol and other drugs program including instruction in the classroom
| Dual Credit Agreements between School Entities and Institutions of Higher Education
|24 P.S. § 15-1525
|Guidance and context for school entities implementing dual credit agreements with institutions of higher education under section 1525
|Early Intervention and Private Schools
|This announcement provides guidance on funding policies for the evaluation and provision of Early Intervention services for children eligible to attend kindergarten
|Early Intervention Transition: Infants and Toddlers to Preschool
|The purpose of this announcement is to provide guidance on transition procedures for: Toddlers transitioning from the Infant/Toddler Early Intervention (EI) program to the Preschool EI program or other community settings at age three Infants/Toddlers who are transitioning to other community services prior to age three
|Early Intervention Transition: Preschool Programs to School-Aged Program
|11 PS 875-101 to 875-502
|The purpose of this announcement is to clarify the procedures concerning the transition of children from Preschool Early Intervention programs to the kindergarten or first grade programs of their school districts of residence or local charter school
|Educating English Learners (ELs)
|22 Pa. Code 4.26
|The development and implementation of an instructional program designed to promote language growth and proficiency as well as academic achievement for English learners is the responsibility of every local education agency in the Commonwealth.
|Education for Homeless Youth
|42 U.S.C.11431 et seq.
|The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act is an aid for homeless persons. It defines the term “homeless children and youths” as individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence. The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) will remove those “awaiting foster care placement” as a category effective December 10, 2016.
|Education Services for Students Incarcerated
|24 P.S. Section 13-1306.2
|Authorizing the adjudication of school age individuals as adults, has increased the student population in local correction institutions
|Educational Programs for Students in “Non-Educational” Placements
|22 Pa. Code Section 14.102 (a)(2)(xiii)
|The joint policy of the Department of Human Services and the Department of Education regarding educational services for students who receive non-educational placements
|Educator Misconduct Complaint Procedures and Complaint Form
|Section 2070.9 authorizes any interested party to file a disciplinary complaint against a professional educator or charter school staff member with the Department of Education
|Educator Misconduct – School Entity Mandatory Report Procedures and Form
|24 P.S. § 2070.9a mandates school entity reporting of educator misconduct with specific timelines. The chief school administrator (school district supt, asst supt, IU exec), chief administrator of a CTC, charter school, or their designees must report the following to PDE : the dismissal for cause of a certified employee or charter school staff member; conduct that has resulted in a criminal indictment or conviction of a certified employee or charter school staff member; information which constitutes reasonable cause to believe the certified employee or charter school staff member has caused physical injury to a student or child through negligence or malice or has committed sexual abuse or exploitation involving a student or child.
|Emergency School Closings
|Guidance and direction regarding public school emergency closing procedures
|Employee Rating Form – this BEC is under revision
|24 P.S. Section 11-1123
|Section 1123 of the Public School Code of 1949 requires the Department of Education to prepare a rating system for use evaluate professional employees of school districts through a system that gives due consideration to personality, preparation, technique, and pupil reaction.
|Enrollment of Students
|24 P.S.13-1301 – 13-1306
|This BEC provides guidance regarding public school enrollment procedures for resident and non-resident children.
|24 P.S.13-1301 – 13-1306
|The following Questions and Answers are provided to assist parents, school districts and charter schools in the student enrollment process. This information is based on applicable school law and regulation and reflects procedures outlined in the recently revised Basic Education Circular ( BEC ) on Student Enrollment
|Extended School Year Eligibility
|22 Pa. Code 14.132
|Issues related to Extended School Year (ESY) services for children with disabilities
|Extent and Duration of Early Intervention Programs for Preschoolers with Disabilities, Including Services during Breaks in Program
|Guidance to clarify Departmental policy concerning the extent and duration of the program provided to eligible young children in early intervention programs, including the provision of services to eligible young children during scheduled breaks in their education program
|Farm and Domestic Service Permits
|24 P.S.13-1329 – 13-1330
|This BEC will discuss two sections of the Public School Code of 1949, as amended. These sections address exceptions to the compulsory attendance provisions of the school code.
|Federal Government Debarment and Suspensions
|34 C.F.R Part 85
|This BEC alerts school entities to their responsibilities under the federal regulations regarding government-wide debarment and suspension. The regulations are intended to implement federal government policy to conduct business only with responsible persons.
|Fire Drills, School Security Drills, and School Bus Evacuations
|The purpose of this BEC is to set forth a process for public school reporting of fire drills and school bus evacuation drills to the Department of Education.
|Foreign Students’ Eligibility for Enrollment
|22 Pa. Code 11.11(d)
|Students who apply for admission to Pennsylvania public schools and possess a visa of any type should comply with the terms and conditions of that visa. Enrollment in elementary and secondary courses of study may impact a student’s legal non-immigration status
|Gifted Individual Education Plan Meeting
|22 Pa. Code Chapter 16
|The purpose of this Circular is to clarify the function of the Gifted Individualized Education Plan (GIEP) team.
|Graduation of Seniors
|24 P.S. Section 15-1501
|Section 1501 of the School Code, as amended, requires the Secretary to determine whether a school district made a “bona fide” effort to provide 180 days for seniors following severe weather conditions that caused school closings.
|Graduation Requirements for Students with Disabilities
|24 P.S. §1-102 – §13-1301 – §16-1614
|This BEC provides local education agencies (LEAs) with a summary of information regarding graduation requirements for students with disabilities.
|This BEC discusses the law and procedures for approval of half-day instructional sessions for school-age students.
|Health Record and Questionnaire Sports Pre-participation and Recertification Forms
|Section 5-511 of the School Code provides that the local school board “shall prescribe, adopt, and enforce such reasonable rules and regulations as it may deem proper, regarding (1) the management, supervision, control, or prohibition of exercises, athletics, or games of any kind.”
|Home Education Program
|This BEC provides a listing of the requirements for the supervisor to establish a home education program, a list of acceptable tests to fulfill the law’s requirements, and sample affidavit form for use by the supervisor.
|Implementation of Chapter 15
|22 Pa. Code Chapter 15
|Regulations of the State Board of Education addresses the responsibility of school districts to comply with the requirements of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and its implementing regulations at 34 CFR Part 104
|Instruction Conducted in the Home
|34 CFR 300.39 and 115
|Reporting requirements for students with disabilities assigned to instruction conducted in the home by the IEP team and students with disabilities who may be assigned to homebound instruction
|Instructional Time and Act 80 Exceptions
|All public schools are to be open each school year for at least one hundred eighty (180) days of instruction for pupils
|Intensive Interagency Coordination
|The system of intensive interagency coordination is not intended to replace the local interagency process.
|Intensive Interagency Definitions (Attachment to BEC )
|This is an attachment to the BEC on Intensive Interagency Coordination and provides the federal definition of “active students”, at risk students”, “past students”, and “compensatory students.
|Section 24 P.S.12-1201
|BEC explains the proper course of action when the public entity discovers that a professional employee may have an invalid certificate, and will address audits concerning such certificates.
|Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) and Educational Placement for Students with Individualized Education Programs (IEPs)
|22 Pa. Code 14.102 (a) (2) (xxiv)
|Primarily directed at school-age students with disabilities. Although components of this BEC apply as well to preschool-age children, PDE is developing specific guidance for preschool-age children.
|Letter to Auditor General on Enrollments
|24 P.S. §13-1301 – §13-1306
|The attached letter from Secretary of Education, Gerald Zahorchak, is a response to the Auditor General regarding student enrollment issues.
|Missing Child Registration
|35 P.S.450.401-A – 450.404-A
|It applies to any last known school which the missing child attended. Missing children include individuals under 18 years of age who are reported to a law enforcement agency as abducted, lost, missing or runaways.
|Nonresident Students in Institutions
|24 P.S. Section 13-1306
|Students who are residing in a “children’s institution” whose parents are not residents of the school district in which the institution is located are identified as “1306” students.
|Official Public School File
|Responsibility for maintenance of the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) official public school computer file lies primarily with the Division of Data Services. This file serves all offices within PDE to provide information necessary for administration of educational programs requiring school level data. It contains the following information: name, address, and telephone of the school; name of principal or head teacher; and school category (e.g. elementary).
|Placement Options for Special Education
|22 Pa Code 14.102
|Review a variety of special education service and placement options available to school districts and charter schools through arrangement with other public agencies or private organizations
|Pregnant and Parenting Students
|24 P.S. Section 13-1327
|This Basic Education Circular is to address questions regarding the education of Pennsylvania students in public and private schools who are pregnant or parenting. Consequently, the following sections discuss such issues as attendance, homebound instruction and special education.
|Private Residential Rehabilitative Institutions
|24 P.S. Section 9-914.1
|The general authority of LEAs to contract with PRRIs is governed by Section 914.1 of the Public School Code of 1949, 24 P.S. Section 9-914.1. Section 914.1 authorizes LEAs to contract with PRRIs which fall within the LEAs geographical boundary
|Process for Gifted Documentation of Dual Exceptionalities and Caseload Assignments
|22 Pa. Code § 16.6 (a), (c), 22 Pa. Code § 16.7, 22 Pa. Code § 16.22 (j), (d), 22 Pa. Code § 16.32 (d) (1-6), 22 Pa. Code § 14.123 (b), 22 Pa. Code § 14.124 (b)
| This circular provides guidance for (1) completing documentation for students identified with dual exceptionalities, and (2) caseload assignment for gifted and special education.
|Protection of Pupil Rights
|20 USC 1232 h
|The purpose of this BEC is to inform you of changes to the Protection of Pupil Rights Act as amended by Public Law 183-227, Title X, Section 1017, March 31, 1994, which revised 20 U.S.C. §1232h
|Public School Employer Third-Party Contracting for Non-Instructional Services
|24 P.S. § 5-528
|This Basic Education Circular (BEC) provides brief guidance concerning the application of section 528 of the Public School Code, 24 P.S.§ 5-528, to a covered public school employer’s contracting for non-instructional services with third-parties. This section was added to the School Code by Act 39 of 2018.
|Public School Entity Employer and Employee Collective Bargaining Organizations
|Janus v. AFSCME, Council 31, No.16-1466 (U.S. June 27, 2018)
|U.S. Supreme Court
|The purpose of this BEC is to provide brief guidance concerning the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Janus v. AFSCME, Council 31, No.16-1466 (U.S. June 27, 2018).
|Reimbursements for School Construction Bond Issues
|The purpose of this BEC is to provide information concerning Commonwealth reimbursement on bond issues relating to school construction projects.
|Sale or Lease of Unused and Unnecessary Lands and Buildings
|This BEC concerns the sale or lease of school facilities that are receiving Commonwealth reimbursement for debt service or authority rental payments. When a building is sold by a school district, reimbursement by the Commonwealth ceases. The school district must notify the Department of Education (PDE) of any sale of school facilities
|School Construction Reimbursement Criteria
|The purpose of this BEC is to clarify existing policies governing requests for school construction reimbursement
|School Immunization Requirements
|The Pennsylvania Department of Health promulgates immunization regulations (28 Pa. Code §§23.81-87) which require parents of those students enrolled in grades K-12 to have their children immunized against various communicable diseases
|Services From The Office of Chief Counsel Pennsylvania Department of Education
|71 P.S. Section 732-301
|In certain circumstances, school districts and intermediate units may request an opinion from the Office of Chief Counsel
|Services to Nonpublic School Students
|22 Pa Code Chapter 15
|Issues concerning the provision of Chapter 15 services to “protected handicapped students” enrolled in private, nonpublic schools
|Special Education Compliance
|22 Pa Code 14.102(a)(4)
|Responsibility for developing and maintaining a system that ensures that each student with a disability receives a free appropriate public education and that each family has access to a system of procedural safeguards.
| Special Education FAPE and One-to-One Support Obligations for Students with Disabilities
| 34 CFR 300.101 and 104.33
|This BEC clarifies that the Local Educational Agency (LEA) is ultimately responsible for the provision of special education and related services for every student with a disability under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. It describes the responsibilities of the LEA to provide special education and related services including one-to-one support for students with disabilities.
|Special Education Services to Nonpublic School Students
|34 CFR 300.403
|Clarification concerning the provision of special education services to students enrolled in private, nonpublic schools
|Student Records Being Retained by a Private School
|22 Pa Code 12.31
|Private school temporarily retains the student’s records pending resolution of an infraction of the private school’s policies or a contractual dispute with a parent or guardian
|Subsidy Payments on Closed, Repurposed, and Reconfigured School Buildings
|22 Pa Code 349.28
|Upon receipt of justification, authorize the continuation of school construction reimbursement payments if the closed school building is used
|20 U.S.C. §141
|The purpose of this Basic Educational Circular is to provide guidance regarding the duty of the Local Education Agency (LEA) to appoint a surrogate parent. A surrogate parent is defined as a person who acts in the place of the parent to make educational decisions on behalf of a child with a disability in all matters relating to the identification, evaluation, educational placement, and provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE).
|Transfer of Entities
|24 PS 11-1113
|Questions about 1113 and 1418 and the Department’s response to those questions.
|Transfer of Records
|Educational programs in state-operated institutions for delinquent youth operate under the authority of the Pennsylvania Department of Education and are considered to be public schools
|Transportation to Approved Private Schools
|Section 1374 of the Public School Code of 1949 governs transportation of exceptional students, including the transportation of eligible children to approved private schools
|Use of Facsimile Signatures
|65 P.S.301 et seq
|This BEC provides the procedure for the Department to recognize facsimile signature for school officials
|Use of Restraints for Students with Disabilities
|22 Pa. Code §§ 14.133; 711.46; 10.25
|This BEC provides guidance regarding the definition and use of restraints in special education regulations, the IEP, and reporting requirements related to the use of restraints.
|Violations of Background Checks
|The purpose of this circular is to inform you of procedures that will be followed by the Department of Education’s School Services Unit when investigating alleged violations of 24 P.S. §1-111.
|Voter Registration As Part Of Implementation of Chapter 15
|25 Pa.C.S.A.1101 et seq.
|This BEC is designed to supplement BEC 22 Pa. Code Chapter 15 (relating to implementation of Chapter 15), which addresses the responsibility of school districts to comply with the requirements of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and its implementing regulations at 34 CFR Part 104 (relating to non-discrimination on the basis of handicap in programs and activities receiving federal financial assistance).
|Voter Registration As Part Of Transition To Adult Life
|25 Pa.C.S.A.1101 et seq.
|This BEC is designed to provide additional direction for Local Educational Agencies (LEAs) regarding their duty to address voter registration opportunities as part of an eligible student’s transition to adult life
What does BEC stand for electrical?
BEC stands for Battery Elimination Circuit. It’s just a fancy name for voltage regulator, which converts main LiPo battery pack voltage to a lower voltage (e.g.2S 7.4V, 3S 11.1V or 4S 14.8V to 5V).
What is BEC English called?
Cambridge English Qualifications: Business Preliminary is also known as the Business English Certificate (BEC) Preliminary. It is the first in a series of three Cambridge English Qualifications Business Certificates. This qualification shows employers that you can communicate in English in practical everyday business situations.
It is the same level as the Cambridge English Qualifications: Preliminary (PET), but is focused on English in business situations. Level of qualification: Intermediate = B1 on the Common European Framework Who should take this exam? You should take this exam if you want to improve your English for your career.
Studying for the BEC Preliminary will give you a good foundation in the English skills you will need to work in international business contexts. To take the exam you should be able to:
follow short telephone conversations or general business discussions discuss practical business tasks such as ordering or answering general enquiries write brief factual business letters or emails.
There are three parts to all Business English exams. You do the Reading & Writing and the Listening papers on the same day. You may need to return to do the Speaking on the same or a different day. You do the Speaking part with two examiners and one or, in exceptional circumstances, two other candidates.
|READING AND WRITING
|1 hr 30 mins
|Marks (% of total)
What does BEC mean in nursing?
Overview – Developed by WHO and ICRC, in collaboration with the International Federation for Emergency Medicine, Basic Emergency Care (BEC): Approach to the acutely ill and injured is an open-access training course for frontline healthcare providers who manage acute illness and injury with limited resources.
Why do I need a BEC?
To understand why they are called battery elimination circuits, you have to go back in time — way back to the early days of electric radio controlled vehicles. Back then, you had to have two batteries to power the vehicle — one to power the motor (like today) and another to power the radio system.
- This second battery pack, usually just a holster to hold four AA batteries, was plugged into a battery port on the receiver.
- This was inefficient, as the batteries were heavy and took up space.
- Eventually, someone came up with the concept of a battery eliminator circuit — a device that could step down the voltage from the main battery to make it safe for the radio system to use, and eliminate the need for the second battery (hence the name).
The first BECs were built into the receiver, not speed controls, but eventually, as the need for more powerful BECs grew, the ESC manufacturers took it upon themselves to include them into their products. Thus the modern BEC was born. A BEC is (usually) a switching voltage regulator that turns on and off very rapidly so as to allow only the necessary amount of energy through at a time.
This allows for high efficiency BECs that can supply high amounts of power, and even have output voltages higher than the input voltages. The average current rating of today’s built-in BECs hovers around 3 Amps, though some are much higher. Unfortunately, the demands of today’s high-torque servos in large-scale airplanes, rock crawlers and much more means these 3A BECs are occasionally not sufficient, and now we have external BECs available to take up the slack.
Using an external BEC isn’t as easy as simply plugging it in. There is some nuance to using an external BEC correctly. Here’s what you need to know.
Power is provided from the main battery, same as the built-in BEC on your speed control. However, that means the external BEC needs to be “tapped into” the power wires before they reach the speed control. There are multiple ways to do this: you could simply solder the positive and negative wires from the external BEC to the power connector on the ESC, or you could make a wiring harness that allows for a more modular, plug-and-play option. The external BEC can be plugged into any open servo port on your receiver. If you don’t have any open, you can also Y-Harness it into any servo or ESC-occupied port. The external BEC replaces a speed control’s built in BEC; they don’t play nice together. Thus the red wire on the ESC’s receiver lead must be either clipped or pulled out before it reaches the receiver. Failure to do this can result in the overloading of the built-in BEC on the speed control, damage to your servos, damage to the external BEC, or all three! If your external BEC has adjustable voltage output, make sure to set it properly for your servos’ specs – if the voltage is too high, you can damage your servos; too low, and you run the risk of brownouts or sluggish servos.
Those are only a couple of the BEC wiring options you can do, but they should start as a launching point for your own R/C vehicle. So if you’re experiencing brown-outs or slow actuating servos, maybe try an external BEC — it’s a great way to ensure constant power to your electronics! Good luck!
What is a real life example of BEC?
CEO Frauds – In this type of BEC attack, threat actors impersonate C-suite executives and send fake emails to employees or other stakeholders. In such scammed emails, they either ask for confidential data or financial transactions.
What is a external BEC?
If you’re experiencing brown-outs, glitching, or slow actuating servos it may be time to try an external BEC (Battery Eliminator Circuit). This scenario can occur in an application which uses high powered servos (or additional torque increasing modifications), where the ESC does not have an internal BEC, or the existing internal BEC is simply inadequate.
A BECs primary purpose is to draw voltage from the motor batteries and drop it to a voltage level that is suitable for your receiver and servos. Simply put, an external BEC will provide clean and constant power and ensure you are not underpowered. Installing a BEC is pretty easy, assuming you don’t mind a little soldering.
Our BECs include wiring instructions.
What does BEC stand for army?
What does BEC stand for?
|BRAC Environmental Coordinator
|Base Environmental Coordinator
|Bulk Encrypted Communications
|Board of Examining Chaplains
What is linear BEC?
A linear BEC works by simply dropping the voltage. The same current flows through the whole circuit, so the BEC has to drop a lot of energy in the form of heat.
How was BEC discovered?
Making Superatoms June 5, 1995: First Bose Einstein Condensate – The density of the atomic cloud is shown, with temperature decreasing from left to right. The high peak, the Bose-Einstein condensate, emerges above the other atoms. The picture is from the JILA laboratory. The BEC phenomenon was first predicted by Satyendra Bose and Albert Einstein: when a given number of identical Bose particles approach each other sufficiently closely, and move sufficiently slowly, they will collectively convert to the lowest energy state: a BEC.
This occurs when atoms are chilled to very low temperatures. The wavelike nature of atoms allows them to spread out and even overlap. If the density is high enough, and the temperature low enough (mere billionths of degrees above absolute zero), the atoms will behave like the photons in a laser: they will be in a coherent state and constitute a single “super atom.” JILA’s Carl Wieman (University of Colorado, Boulder) and Eric Cornell (NIST) first started searching for a BEC around 1990 with a combination laser and magnetic cooling apparatus.
Wieman pioneered the use of $200 diode lasers (the same type used in CD players) instead of the $150,000 lasers other groups were using. His approach was initially met with skepticism by his colleagues, but when he began to report real progress, several other groups joined the race to achieve the first BEC.
Beginning with rubidium gas atoms at room temperature, the JILA team first slowed the rubidium and captured it in a trap created by laser light. This cooled the atoms to about 10 millionths of a degree above absolute zero—still far too hot to produce a BEC. Once trapped, the lasers are turned off and the atoms are held in place by a magnetic field.
The atoms are further cooled in the magnetic trap by selecting the hottest atoms and kicking them out of the trap. Then came the tricky part: trapping a sufficiently high density of atoms at temperatures that were cold enough to produce a BEC. To do this, Wieman and his colleagues had to devise a time- averaged orbiting potential trap (an improvement to the standard magnetic trap).
- The world’s first BEC was achieved at 10:54 AM on June 5, 1995 in a laboratory at JILA, a joint institute of University of Colorado, Boulder, and NIST.
- The BEC was formed inside a carrot sized glass cell, and made visible by a video camera; it measured only about 20 microns in diameter, or about one fifth the thickness of a sheet of paper.
The result was a BEC of about 2,000 rubidium atoms that lasted for 15-20 seconds. Shortly thereafter, Wolfgang Ketterle also achieved a BEC in his laboratory at MIT. Today, scientists can produce condensates of much greater numbers of atoms that can last as long as three full minutes, and they continue to glean intriguing new insights into this unusual form of matter.
- By September 2001, over three dozen other laboratories had replicated the discovery.
- In 1997, MIT researchers developed an atom laser based on BECs that was able to drip single atoms downward from a micro spout, and in February 1999, a team at Harvard University used a BEC to slow down light to just 38 MPH by shining a laser beam through the condensate.
Two years later the team announced that it had briefly brought light to a complete stop. In March 1999, scientists at the NIST facility in Gaithersburg, MD, nudged super cold atoms into a beam to create a device that shoots out streams of atoms in any direction.
- The breakthrough could lead to a new technique for making very small computer chips, or to construct nanode-vices one atom at a time.
- On June 18, 1999, JILA researchers used the technique to achieve the first Fermi degenerate gas of atoms.
- A group of German researchers demonstrated in 2001 that BECs can be created and manipulated using so-called atom chips, an achievement that could form the basis of integrated “atom circuits” based on the motion of atoms rather than electrons.
And in December 2002, physicists in Innsbruck created the first BEC out of cesium atoms, which are the basis of atomic clocks and also play a key role in certain metrological applications, including measurements of the electric dipole moment of the electron.
The Colorado group is now experimenting with this new form of matter by manipulating it in new and different ways. In July 2001, he and his colleagues were able to make a BEC shrink, which was followed by a tiny explosion similar in some ways to a microscopic supernova. So they dubbed it a “Bosenova.” About half of the original atoms appear to vanish in the process.
They cooled the matter to 3 billionths of a degree above absolute zero—the lowest temperature ever achieved to date. Cornell, Ketterle and Wieman shared the 2001 Nobel Prize in physics for their accomplishment. Their joint discovery of the BEC is “going to bring revolutionary applications in such fields as precision measurement and nanotechnology,” the citation from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said.
When was the first BEC created?
Distinguished Professor Carl E. Wieman of the University of Colorado department of physics at Boulder and Senior Scientist Eric A. Cornell of the National Institute of Standards and Technology led a team of physicists that created the world’s first Bose-Einstein condensate – a new form of matter – on June 5, 1995.
The condensate allows scientists to study the strange and extremely small world of quantum physics as if they are looking through a giant magnifying glass. Its creation established a new branch of atomic physics that has provided a treasure-trove of scientific discoveries. Predicted in 1924 by Albert Einstein, who built on the work of Satyendra Nath Bose, the condensate occurs when the wavelengths of individual atoms begin to overlap and behave in identical fashion, forming a “superatom.” The “superatom” occurs when laboratory apparatus is used to chill a group of atoms to just a few hundred billionths of a degree above absolute zero.
Cornell and Wieman likened a Bose-Einstein condensate to an ice crystal forming in cold water and said it has the same relation to ordinary matter as laser light has to light from a light bulb. The atoms within the condensate obey the laws of quantum physics and are as close to absolute zero – minus 459.67 degrees Fahrenheit or minus 273.15 Celsius – as the laws of physics allow.
- Today, scientists around the world are manipulating condensates made from a variety of gases to probe their scientific properties.
- The condensate can be used to form an atomic laser and could one day lead to a better atomic clock.
- It really is a new form of matter,” Wieman said.
- It behaves completely differently from any other material.” A Bose-Einstein condensate was first achieved at 10:54 a.m.
June 5, 1995, in a laboratory at JILA, a joint institute of CU-Boulder and NIST. The apparatus that made it is now at the Smithsonian Institution. As of September 2001 about three dozen other laboratories worldwide had replicated the discovery and were conducting a wide variety of experiments.
Wieman and Cornell are both fellows of JILA, and Cornell is a professor adjoint at CU-Boulder. Both are members of the National Academy of Sciences and both teach undergraduate and graduate students. The team led by Wieman and Cornell used laser and magnetic traps to create the Bose-Einstein condensate, a tiny ball of rubidium atoms that are as stationary as the laws of quantum mechanics permit.
The condensate was formed inside a carrot-sized glass cell. Made visible by a video camera, the condensate looks like the pit in a cherry except that it measures only about 20 microns in diameter or about one-fifth the thickness of a sheet of paper. In 1997, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed an atom laser based on the Colorado discovery that was able to drip single atoms downward from a micro-spout.
In March 1999, scientists at the NIST facility in Gaithersburg, Md., created a device that shoots out streams of atoms in any direction, just as a laser shoots out streams of light. Made possible by nudging super-cold atoms into a beam, the breakthrough could lead to a new technique for making extremely small computer chips, according to NIST Nobel Laureate William Phillips, who led the team.
Eventually, such a device might be able to construct nano-devices one atom at a time. In February 1999, a team of researchers from Harvard University led by Lene Vestergaard Hau used the Bose-Einstein condensate to slow light – which normally travels at 186,000 miles per second – to just 38 miles per hour by shining a laser light through the condensate.
- In 2001, Hau’s team announced that it had briefly brought a light beam to a complete stop.
- On June 18, 1999, JILA researcher Deborah Jin of NIST and CU-Boulder graduate student Brian DeMarco used the technique in achieving the first ever Fermi degenerate gas of atoms, a state of matter in which atoms behave like waves.
While the Bose-Einstein experiments used one class of quantum particles known as bosons, Jin and DeMarco cooled atoms that are fermions, the other class of quantum particles found in nature. This was important to physicists because the basic building blocks of matter – electrons, protons and neutrons – are all fermions.
Wieman and Cornell are continuing to explore the properties of Bose-Einstein condensates. In 1999 they were the leaders of a group that created the first vortices ever seen in the condensates and also were doing extensive studies of two-component condensates. In July 2001, Wieman and Cornell were part of a CU-Boulder and JILA team that was able to make a Bose-Einstein condensate shrink – an event which was followed by a tiny explosion.
The team said the phenomenon was similar in some ways to a microscopic supernova explosion and dubbed it a “Bosenova.” About half of the original atoms appear to vanish during the process. “We have gotten down to the nitty-gritty science and have been able to study the behavior of a new material by manipulating it in new and different ways,” Wieman said.
- In doing so, they cooled the matter to 3 billionths of a degree above absolute zero, now the lowest temperature ever achieved.
- Wieman started searching for Bose-Einstein condensation in about 1990 with a combination laser and magnetic cooling apparatus that he designed himself.
- He pioneered the use of $200 diode lasers – the same type used in compact disc players – showing they could replace the $150,000 lasers others were using.
Cornell joined the effort about a year later. Wieman’s tactics in pursuing the condensation initially were met with skepticism in the scientific community. But as his and Cornell’s methods began to show the goal was achievable, several other teams of physicists joined the chase.
- Beginning with atoms of rubidium gas at room-temperature, the JILA team first slowed the rubidium and captured it in a trap created by light from the lasers.
- The infrared beams are aligned so that the atoms are bombarded by a steady stream of photons from all directions – front, back, left, right, up and down.
The wavelength of the photons is chosen so that they will interact only with atoms that are moving toward the photons. For the atoms, “It’s like running in a hail storm so that no matter what direction you run, the hail is always hitting you in the face,” Wieman said.
“So you stop.” This cools the atoms to about 10 millionths of a degree above absolute zero, still far too hot to produce Bose-Einstein condensation. About 10 million of these cold atoms are captured in the light trap. Once the atoms are trapped, the lasers are turned off and the atoms are kept in place by a magnetic field.
Most atoms act like tiny magnets because they contain spinning charged particles like electrons. The atoms can be trapped, or held in place, if a magnetic field is properly arranged around them, the researchers said. The atoms are further cooled in the magnetic trap by selecting the hottest atoms and kicking them out of the trap.
- It works in a way similar to the evaporative cooling process that cools a hot cup of coffee – the hottest atoms leap out of the cup as steam.
- The trickiest part was trapping a high enough density of atoms at a cold enough temperature.
- Cornell came up with an improvement to the standard magnetic trap – called a time-averaged orbiting potential trap – that was the final breakthrough allowing them to form the condensate.
Because the coldest atoms had a tendency to fall out of the center of the standard atom trap like marbles dropping through a funnel, Cornell designed a technique to move the funnel around. “It’s like playing keep-away with the atoms because the hole kept circulating faster than the atoms could respond,” Cornell said.
The result was a Bose-Einstein condensate of about 2,000 rubidium atoms that lasted for 15 seconds to 20 seconds. New machines can now make condensates of much greater numbers of atoms that last for up to 3 minutes. Working with Cornell and Wieman on the initial Bose-Einstein condensation were postdoctoral researcher Michael Anderson and CU-Boulder graduate students Jason Ensher and Michael Matthews.
Over the six years preceding the discovery, the experiment involved eight graduate and three undergraduate students at CU-Boulder. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation, NIST, the Office of Naval Research and CU-Boulder. Wieman and Cornell have won several prestigious awards including the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Physics from the Franklin Institute in 2000, the Lorentz Medal from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1998, the King Faisal International Prize in Science in 1997 and the Fritz London Award for low-temperature physics in 1996.
Cornell has received the National Science Foundation’s Alan T. Waterman award in 1997, the Department of Commerce Gold Medal, the Presidential Early Career Award in Science and Engineering and the Stratton award from NIST, the organization’s highest scientific award. Wieman won the 2001 NSF Director’s Award for Distinguished Teaching Scholars, the NSF’s highest honor for excellence in both teaching and research, and also has won the Richtmyer lecture award from the American Association of Physics Teachers, the Einstein Medal for Laser Science and the Arthur L.
Schawlow Prize in Laser Science. Wieman is a former chair of the JILA research institute, a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and holds an honorary doctorate from the University of Chicago. JILA, formerly known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, is an interdisciplinary institute for research and graduate education in the physical sciences located on the campus of the University of Colorado at Boulder.
What does the male name BEC mean?
Irish Baby Names Meaning: – In Irish Baby Names the meaning of the name Bec is: Small.
What does BEC mean in nursing?
Overview – Developed by WHO and ICRC, in collaboration with the International Federation for Emergency Medicine, Basic Emergency Care (BEC): Approach to the acutely ill and injured is an open-access training course for frontline healthcare providers who manage acute illness and injury with limited resources.